Biotechnology in Conservation of Agricultural Environment

Biotechnology in Conservation of Agricultural Environment

K. Sarala, Senior Scientist (Biotechnology) Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry-533 105, A.P.

Increase in crop yield in agriculture in 1960s, in India, was mainly due to introduction of new high yielding varieties. This has necessitated intensive use of agro-chemicals (mineral fertilizers and pesticides). However, the increase in agri-inputs was not directly proportional to the yields realized. During 1946-1965, the chemical (fertilizers and pesticides) input consumption was 87.0 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) and food production 90 MMT; where as in 1998-2001, chemical input consumption was 1000 MMT and food production 220 MMT. Thus, when compared to 1946-1965, a 12 fold increase of chemical fertilizer consumption resulted in only 2.5 fold increase of food production. These figures indicate that for each unit of additional food produced higher amount of chemical inputs were utilized (Alvares, 1999; http:/indiabudget.nic.in; www.photius.com). The added inputs especially inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and weedicides have led to environmental problems. Progressive mechanization and mono-culture are other features that were added to Indian agriculture scenario after green revolution.

As a consequence of intensive agriculture natural resources were depleted, soils lost their natural fertility, soil microflora affected adversely, soil erosion increased and sudden and frequent apparition of new pests and diseases occurred. Excess use of fertilizers also spoiled soil health and adversely altered nutrient dynamics in the soil. Indiscriminate and injudicious use of pesticides contaminated the surrounding atmosphere, killed beneficial insects, soil micro flora and fauna and contaminated ground water. In addition to pest resurgence and new biotype / pest development minor pests became major pests and pests developed resistance to regularly used pesticides. All these things disturb the environmental balance. The present paper deals with applications of Biotechnology in alleviating these affects.

Plant Biotechnology

Plant biotechnology is a revolutionary new field that harnesses the knowledge gained over more than half a century of basic plant research to the benefit of man kind. Agriculture is already realizing huge benefits from improved crops developed through biotechnology, which shows remarkable resistance to insect damage, markedly reduced dependence on herbicides, improved yield levels, higher photochemicals etc.

Agricultural biotechnology helps to alleviate the above ill effects of intensive agriculture through the development of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, and disease and pest resistant varieties, and genotypes with higher water and nutrient use efficiency. All these aspects are discussed below.

Biofertilisers

Some alternatives to the use of mineral fertilizers are green manures, composts and bioearths, earth worm manure, crop and agro industrial residues and biofertilizers.

The native soils harbor microorganisms like bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae, protozoa etc. These microorganisms enrich the nutrient quality of soil. Plants have a number of relationships with these fungi, bacteria, and algae. Few of the useful microorganisms can be produced in the form of Bio-fertilizers and added to the soil for improving the soil fertility and plant nutrient uptake.

Bio-fertilizers are the preparations containing live or latent cells of efficient strains of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing or cellulolyotic micro-organisms used for application to seed or composting areas with the objective of increasing the numbers of such micro-organisms and accelerating those microbial processes which augment the availability of nutrients that can be easily assimilated by plants(Ghosh, 2003). Some of the microorganisms being used as biofertilisers and their uses are given in Table 1. Table 1. Biofertilizers and their utilities S.No.Bio-fertilizerutility 1.RhizobiumFix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with legume plants forming nodules in roots (stem nodules in Sesabaniam rostrata) 2.AzotobacterBeneficial to cereals, millets, vegetables, cotton and sugarcane. It is free living and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism produces certain substances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many root pathogens 3.AzospirillumNitrogen-fixing microorganisms beneficial for non-leguminous plants also produce growth promoting substances. 4.Blue Green Algae (BGA)Photosynthetic nitrogen fixers and are free living. Found in abundance in India. Add growth-promoting substances including vitamin B12, improve the soil’s aeration and water holding capacity and add to biomass when decomposed after life cycle. 5.AzollaAn aquatic fern found in small and shallow water bodies and in rice fields. It has symbiotic relation with BGA and can help rice or other crops through dual cropping or green manuring of soil. 6.Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria(PSB) The PSB are life forms that can help in improving phosphate uptake of plants in different ways. The PSB also has the potential to make utilization of India’s abundant deposits of rock phosphates possible, much of which is not enriched

In India, total Biofertilizer production capacity of public and private sector units is 18200 tonnes and total estimated Biofertilizer production is 10,000 tones during 2006-07. The Biofertilizer demand for the year2011 has been estimated at 30,000 tonnes by a recent expert committee constituted by the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers. This clearly indicated that there is a large scope of biofertilisers industry in India.

Integrating biologicals in pest management

The adverse affects caused by excess use of pesticides can be reduced by following integrated pest management (IPM) approach i.e. integrating chemicals with biologicals in the pest management. This approach not only reduces the crop losses due to pests but also make agriculture more sustainable. Botanical pesticides and biocontrol agents offer immense scope in IPM

Biopesticides

Biopesticides are biorational and help to create Natural epizootics. They are inherently less harmful than conventional pesticides. They suppress, rather than eliminate, a pest population. Biopesticides are effective and often quickly biodegradable, present no residue problems and mostly self perpetuating.

Biopesticides, particularly microbial biopesticides, have virtually all the health safety and environmental properties that one would desire in a pesticide. The ecological fallacy and the individualistic fallacy need to be studied in detail.

Microbial insecticides are come from naturally-occurring bacteria, fungi, viruses (Ramarethinam, 2006). Various details of biopesticides including mechanism, pests and crops etc. are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Biopesticides their source and mechanism in pest control

Biopesticide type SourceNature/organismMechanismUsed againstCrops benefited Natural productPlant-Neem Vitex GarlicBiochemicalsAntifeedant, growth regulation, oviposition and mating disruptionInsect pestHorticultural, plantation and plain crops MicrobialsBacteria Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt) InfectionInsect pests B. sphaericus, PseudomonasAntibiosisDisease VirusNuclear polyhedrosis viruses, Granulosis virusesInfection resulting in epizooticsInsect pest FungiBeauveria, Metarhizium, Paecilomyces, NomuraeaInfection resulting in epizooticsInsect pests Trichoderma GliocladiumAntagonism and AntibiosisFungal disease of plants ProtozoaNosema, Thelohania, VairimorphaEpizooticsInsect pests PheromonesPheromonesBiochemicalsMating disruption, lure and kill, or insect monitoring strategiesInsect pest Genes or Plant-pesticide :Desired genes from a known sourceBiochemicalsConfer tolerance of herbicide application or resistance to attack by viruses or insectsInsect pest and disease

Market potential of biopesticides in India

The domestic market of biopesticides is in infant stage still – despite decades of existence, biopesticides are considered as marginal products. Virtually bereft of buyers and sellers. Awareness about the advantages of biopesticides is abysmally low as compared to the west,” this is affecting their demand adversely. Manufacturers claim that the projected demand for biopesticide has failed to become a reality. Rough estimates by the experts indicated a less than 2 per cent market share for Biopesticides in India (Agriculture today, Jan, 2005).

Agricultural Biotechnology – Varietal Development

Using different biotechnological techniques varieties having higher yields, disease and pest resistance, fertilizer responsiveness, herbicide tolerance, higher water/fertilizer use efficient, drought resistance etc can be developed. Biotechnology offers various advantageous over conventional breeding in developing crop varieties (Table 3). It employs novel technologies for creating variability, gene transfer, selection of segregating generations, transgenic development etc. Time taken for breeding a variety can be substantially reduced through biotechnology approach. Gene silencing (“switching off” of a gene by a mechanism other than genetic modification) and gene attenuation (to stop translation of an mRNA of a gene when certain conditions are not met) strategies can be employed to develop desirable genotypes.

Table 3. Agricultural Biotechnology vs. conventional breeding in varietal development

S.NoParameterAgricultural BiotechnologyConventional Breeding 1Creation of variabilitySomaclonal variationCreate through hybridization of parents Gamato clonal variation Proto clonal variation In vitro mutations 2Gene transferInter specific Mostly intra-specific, rarely inter-specific Inter generic 3Selection In vitro selectionPhenotypic selection Marker assisted selection 4GenesIsolated genesUses available variability Synthetic genes 5Gene transferAgro bacterium MediatedCrossing Gene gun Protoplast Fusion 6Time taken for breedingCan be reducedFairly long 7Trait expressionGene silencingCan’t be used Gene attenuation etc.,

Biotech crops in the world

Number of crop varieties were developed using various biotechnological approaches. Among them, Flavr savr tomato is the first transgenic crop released for commercial cultivation in USA in 1995. Later, number of pest and disease resistant varieties were released in cotton, maize, potato, soybean, tomato etc in different countries. Most of the cases the genes are cry genes conferring resistance to lepidopteron pests followed by viral genes. Pest resistance varieties substantially reduce the amount of pesticide use, there by avoids environmental problems.

From 1996-2007, global biotech crop area increased from 1.7 m ha to 114.3 m ha. 23 countries are growing biotech crops viz. soybean, cotton, maize and canola, 13 biotech mega countries growing 50,000 ha or more of biotech crops. The area covered by biotech crops in industrial countries is more compared to developing countries. These statistics indicates the increased awareness of the world farmers about biotech crops (James, 2007).

Biotech crop status in India

Many public and private sector institutions are involved in the development of biotech crop varieties in India. Biotechnology research in India is funded primarily by government agencies such as DBT, CSIR, ICAR and ICMR.

Regulations in India

Development and cultivation of transgenic varieties are raising many environmental concerns. In view of this, transgenic variety in any crop is released once it satisfies all environmental concerns. Before release they will be thoroughly tested for their effect on soil flora and fauna, allergenicity, toxicology etc. In India, Department of Biotechnology in Department of Science and Technology and Ministry of Environment and Forests are responsible for implementing bio-safety regulations with in the country. The regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in India has been subjected to the rules framed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) in 1989(GOI, 1989). These rules, which were part of the Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986, defined implementing structures for conducting research and for the commercial applications of GMOs. Department of Biotechnology formulated guidelines for conducting research in transgenic plants (GOI, 1990 1994 and 1998).

Govt. of India has evolved regulatory mechanisms for the development and evaluation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Various bio-safety committees, starting right from the institute where the research is going on to District and State, are in operation to monitor the safety of GMOs. GM crop regulatory structure in India consists of the following six committees. First three are under the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), next one under the MOEF and the last two operate at sub-federal levels closer to the actual site of GM crop field trials.

Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC): Reviews developments in biotechnology at national and international levels and recommends suitable and appropriate safety regulations

Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM): Monitors safety-related aspects of ongoing research projects and activities involving genetically engineered organisms.

Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC): Constituted by the institution conducting research that handles micro-organisms/genetically-engineered organisms.

The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC): Based in MoEF and gives approvals for activities involving large-scale commercial use and release of hazardous micro organisms including imports of GMOs and recombinants

The State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC): Nodal agency at the State-level to assess damages, if any, from the release of GMOs.

The District Level Biotechnology Committee (DLC): Monitors safety regulations in installations engaged in the use of GMOs and hazardous substances at District level.

Steps in GM plant commercialization process:

In India, a transgenic variety is developed under the close supervision of different regulatory bodies’ right from lab and greenhouse experiments to its approval for commercial production (Table 4). This elaborated exercise helps to assess their possible impact on environment. In case of any adverse impact that particular line will be withdrawn before release. Only lines that don’t have any impact will be considered for release based on their agricultural advantage.

Table 4. GM plant commercialization process

Steps in GM plant commercialization process Data generated at this step(more can be requested if needed)Who approves 1. Lab & greenhouse experiments Rationale for development of GM plant Cloning strategy Characteristics of expression vectors, inserted genes, promoters Transformation/cloning method Genetic analysis of transgene Biochemistry of expressed gene Compositional analysis Description of host plant, geographical distribution in country of origin, Back crossing duration, seed setting characteristics, germination rates, phenotypic characteristics, target gene efficacy tests Observations about implications of toxicity & allergenicityIBSC risk category I & II RCGM risk category III 2. Contained open field trials & generation of biosafety data Germination rates & phenotypic characteristics Studies of gene flow, invasiveness, weed formation Implications of out crossing Susceptibility to diseases & pests Toxicity & allergenicity of plants/fruits/seeds Food/feed safety evaluation in animalsIBSC/RCGM 3. Multi-location trials Agronomic advantageRCGM/GEAC 4. Large-scale field trials Agronomic advantageGEAC 5. Environmental, food & agronomic approval GEAC 6. Variety registration* Agronomic advantageICAR, National and State Seed Quality control agencies 7. Approval for commercial production GEAC

Biotech crops cultivated in India

On 26th March 2002, Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) for the first time approved three Bt cotton hybrids (MECH 12 Bt, MECH 162 Bt and MECH 184 Bt) of MAHYCO for commercial cultivation in India. RCH2 Bt hybrids of Rasi seeds were approved on 1st April 2004 in Central and Southern part of India.

Bt-cotton was first planted in India in 2002. Following its success, the area under this crop and the number of farmers who adopted this technology increased significantly from year to year as shown in the Table 5 below:

Table 5: Area under Bt-cotton in India (2002 to 2007) YearTotal cotton area in hectaresBt-cotton area in hectaresBt-cotton area in acres% area occupied by Bt-cottonNo. of Bt-farmers 200287,30,00029,00072,0000.320,000 200376,70,00086,0002,13,0001.175,000 200476,30,0005,53,00013,66,0007.33,50,000 200589,20,00012,67,00031,31,00014.210,00,000 200691,58,00038,00,00094,00,00041.523,00,000 200794,00,00062,00,000*153,20,00066.038,00,000 Source: http://www.cbd.int/doc/external/mop-04/fbae-cotton-en.doc Thus, in about 6 years, the area under Bt-cotton has increased by more than 210 times to record 6.2 m ha and the number of Bt-farmers by 190 times to reach 3.8 m in 2007. Further, Bt-cotton has occupied 66% of the 9.4 m ha of the total cotton area in India in 2007.

Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry India (ASSOCHAM) and IMRB International study on Bt cotton in India revealed that cotton farmers have earned an additional income of Rs 7,039 crore in 2006 after a 50 per cent increase in yield due to use of Bt cotton seed. Introduction of two stacked genes into Bollgard II Bt cotton has saved pesticide use to the tune of Rs 1,600 per acre. Bollgard II Bt cotton has the advantage of controlling both bollworms and the sucking pest, Spodoptera, while Bt cotton (with one gene) controls only bollworm. Bollgard II Bt cotton was allowed for commercial cultivation in central and western India in 2006. In view of the increased crop yields of BT cotton, India turned into a net cotton surplus country from a net importer in four years.

Number of pesticides sprays and amounts spent pesticide per acre were reduced when Bt cotton and Bollgard II Bt cotton were cultivated. Additional profit of Rs. 7,757/- and Rs. 10,352/- per acre, respectively, were realized by Bt cotton and Bollgard II Bt cotton over conventional cotton varieties (Table 6).

Table 6. Advantage of Bt cotton over conventional varieties

Cotton varietyNo.of pesticide spraysAmount spent on pesticide per acreProfit /acre* Conventional cotton -Rs. 2,900Rs. 4,784 Bt cotton (with one gene, cry 1 Ac)4.6 times less than conventionalRs. 2,000Rs. 12,541 Bollgard II Bt cotton (with Cry I Ac and Cry 2 Ab genes) 2 times less than Bt cottonRs. 1,300Rs. 15,136

* Bt seeds are 2.5 times costlier than conventional seeds

The results of other five studies conducted by public institutions and published recently are summarized in the table below to exemplify the benefits (Manjunath, 2008). Table 7 : Results of studies carried out by neutral agencies on the performance Of Bt-cotton in India

Publication / ParametersBennett et al., 2006Gandhi & Namboodiri (IIMA), 2006Qaim, 2006ICAR, 2006Ramgopal (Andhra Univ.) 2006 Period studied2002 & 200320042002-0320052005 Yield increase45 – 63%31%34%30.9%46% Reduction in chemical sprays3 to 139%6.8-4.2(50%)-55% Increased profit50%88%69%-110% Average profit / hectare-$250/ha$118/ha-$223/ha The results reveal that a) increase in cotton yield ranged from 30.9 to 63%, b) reduction in chemical sprays was from 39 to 55% and c) increase in profit to farmers ranged from 50 to 110% equivalent to about US$ 250 (Rs.10, 000) per hectare over the non-Bt cotton. It is reported that the average cotton yields in India which was 308kg/ha in 2002, prior to introduction of Bt-cotton, increased to 560kg/ha in 2007 (at least 50% of increase is attributed to Bt technology). Similarly, the national cotton production increased from mere 15.8 million bales in 2002 to 31.0 m bales in 2007. Exports of raw cotton, which was 0.9 m bales in 2005, increased to 4.7 m bales in 2006 and touched 4.8 m bales in 2007. Further, Bt-cotton contributed US$840 million or more to National farm economy. The studies carried out on Bt-cotton both before and after commercialization have clearly shown the following benefits: a) Higher cotton yield owing to effective control of bollworms, b) drastic reduction in the application of chemical insecticides for bollworm control, c) higher profit to farmers and d) conservation of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms. Thus, there have been social and economic benefits and intangible environmental benefits. The ever-increasing demand for Bt-cotton seeds is a clear reflection of farmers’ confidence in this technology and its benefits.

Conclusion

Use of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and transgenic varieties in agriculture are showing increasing trend. Use of these things will reduce the utilization of chemical pesticides and pesticides; there by the harmful effects they produce will be reduced. Further increase in these eco-friendly biotech derived agri-inputs is essential to alleviate the environmental issues raised in conventional agriculture. References: Agriculture today (Jan,2005). The National Agricultural Magazine, Published by New Delhi. Alvares, C. (ed.) (1999) The organic farming source book. Published by The Other India Press/Third World Network, Goa (India). 366 p Bennett, R. et al., 2006. Farm-level economic performance of genetically modified cotton in Maharashtra, India. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28: 59-71. Gandhi, V. and Namboodiri, N.V., 2006. The adoption and economics of Bt-cotton in India: Preliminary results from a study. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad, India. Working paper No. 2006-09-04, pages 1-27, Sept. 2006. Ghosh, Nilabja 2003. Promoting Bio-fertilizers in Indian Agriculture. Institute of Economic Growth Discussion Paper Series No. 69/2003. Delhi, India. GOI. 1989. Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export and storage of hazardous microorganisms/genetically engineered organisms or cells, issued by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India (Notification No. G.S.R. 1037 9E) dated 5 December 1989. GOI. 1990. Recombinant DNA safety guidelines. DBT, Union Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, p. 90. GOI. 1994. Revised guidelines for safety in biotechnology. DBT, Union Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. GOI. 1998. Revised guidelines for research in transgenic plants and guidelines for toxicity and allergenicity evaluation of transgenic seeds, plants and plant parts. DBT, Union Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, p. 92. ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), 2006. Frontline demonstrations of cotton – 2005-06. Mini Mission II, Technology Mission on cotton. ICAR, New Delhi. James, C. 2007. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2007. ISAAA Briefs No. 37, 225 pp. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. Manjunath, T. M. (2008) Position Paper on Indian Bt cotton. Bt-Cotton in India: Remarkable Adoption and Benefits. http://www.cbd.int/doc/external/mop-04/fbae-cotton-en.doc. Manjunath, T. M. 2007. Q & A on Bt-Cotton in India. Answers to More than 70 Questions on All Aspects. All India Crop Biotechnology Association, New Delhi, 78 pp. Qaim, M. 2006. Adoption of Bt cotton and impact variability: Insights from India. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28: 59-71. Ramarethinam, S (2006) Conference on Agrochemicals. January 12-13, 2006, Mumbai. Speeches and Presentations-2006: FICCI (http://www.ficci.com/media-room/speeches-presentations/2006/speeches-2006.htm). Ramgopal, N., 2006. Economics of Bt-cotton vis–vis traditional cotton varieties – Study in Andhra Pradesh, Agro-Economic Research Centre, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh.

Auther: K. Sarala, Senior Scientist (Biotechnology), Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry-533 105, A.P.

Best Animation Degrees in IndiaMotion Capture Technology Courses & 3D Courses

The Indian animation industry has witnessed a major boom in the last, five years and this fact is further proved by the ever-increasing number of animation multimedia institutes in India. In fact, many places in India have emerged as the hub of the animation outsourcing industry and animation multimedia courses. For instances, the top animation institutes of Delhi are counted among the best animation training locations across India. The increasing requirement of animation artists in India is understandable since the animation industry has now entered nearly every media sector across the world. Animation artists passing from the top 3d animation institutes of India can find work in gaming industry apart from the film, video and console developing firms. This is also why advanced animation courses in India like motion capture animation are gaining popularity. This is where animators emerging from multimedia training centres in India are required to create instant backgrounds and edit action sequences.

Emerging Animation Courses in India-Motion Capture Animation Courses/b>

Motion Capture Technology originated a long time back but today, it has made a comeback in the form of new and emerging movie making technologies wherein motion capture technologies are used for creating animated images and establishing new backgrounds. Motion Capture Technology is actually an advanced animation technology that is taught only by the best of animation multimedia institutes of India. Motion Capture Technology refers to the art of using sensors to moving or objects. This technology is also used in sports coaching and by physical therapists apart from other types of health care settings.

Learning Motion Capture Technology is not difficult particularly for 3d animation students emerging from the best animation colleges of India. Today, such progressive animators are using Motion Capture Technology for mapping the physical movements of humans and animals so that their 3D impressions can be created that is further used for films and computer gaming interfaces. Using such Motion Capture Technologies, 3d animation students don’t need to input every bit of action or gesture for creating the animation frame. Usually, students who have done 3d animation training find it easy to capture the required for creating live actor feeds and rendering the animation images and further adding textures.

Motion Capture Technology is usually offered by animation institutes that offer other advanced animation courses like 3d studio max course. This technology helps students to use active and passive markers that are needed for creating real life like subjects. The Passive markers used in such advanced animation technologies are used for highlighting the black shades in the camera-created images that are further used for mapping the movement in space. Active markers consist of light-emitting diodes that are used for highlighting character movement in defined spaces and for imagery effects.

Renewable Energy Technology A National Perspective

For decades people were only concerned with the question how to generate enough energy to satisfy our growing energy demand. Renewable energy technology was not on the agenda. Today this has changed. As news came out that fossil fuel resources are running out much faster than expected and damage to our environment is already causing significant changes to our climate people are now looking for new answers. Renewable energy technology is now at the forefront of our quest to solve our current energy crisis.

The energy crisis and the environmental problems are so fundamental that no single government can solve the problem alone. As a matter of fact, the problem is so vast that we cannot just rely on our governments to make changes. Each and every one of us must take responsibility for their own energy consumption and contribute as much as possible to a cleaner future.

In the Unites States the government has established the national renewable energy technology laboratory (NREL). In addition to research, the laboratory also provides information to the public about renewable energy sources.

On its’ website the NREL provides a lot of information to anybody who wants to learn about renewable energy technology. The website also provides information about the research conducted by the NREL. In particular you can read about development strategies to change the way that power is consumed in businesses, homes and even in our cars.

You can also visit the laboratory for renewable energy technology in person in Golden and in Washington. However, if your main focus is on wind energy I recommend you visit the national wind technology center instead.

At the NREL in Golden, Colorado you can learn a lot about how you can help to protect our environment and how you can save energy in your daily live. Especially the visitor’s center provides a vast array of information about renewable energy technology and how we can integrate alternative sources of energy into our daily activities. The opening hours of the center are Monday to Friday, 9am to 5pm. The center is closed on weekends and public holidays.

If you are interested in alternative and clean energy sources then the NREL’s website should be one of your first focal points. It provides in-depth information about all different types of renewable energy technology, such as solar energy, wind power, biomass power and geothermal power. If you are a student you can find materials to assist with your assignments and school projects.
Since the NREL is an official institution you know that the information you find on their website is accurate and up to date.

The NREL website is especially helpful if you are interested in solar energy. The information is innovative and to the point and can be a good starting point if you are thinking about using solar renewable energy technology in your home or your office.
Finding a solution to our energy and environmental problems is a very pressing issue and the government is dedicating more and more funds to finding a solution. Recently, the US Department of Energy has allocated $107.4m to support and further efficiency and clean energy projects. The scientists at the national renewable energy technology laboratory are at the forefront of research in this area.

The NREL website also provides extensive information on solar thermal, photovoltaic and solar radiation research.

The NREL also provides help and advice to anybody who is interested in using clean renewable energy technology in their lives. If you need help to get your project started or off the ground the NREL provides the support you need. They already support clean energy projects for businesses, educational institutions, tribal communities and even many international governments.

If you are ready to make a difference and start implementing clean and green energy into your live I recommend that you inform yourself first. The national renewable energy technology laboratory’s website can be a great starting point for your own research. You will find reliable answers to many of your questions and it will give you the confidence that you know you can make a change, too!

Touch Screen Technology And Our Daily Life

Touch screen mobile phone is absolutely amazing! Nowadays, you can see people on commercials or internet everywhere.

The mobile devices and mobile phones become leek, sexy and powerful with this technology. Touch screen mobile phone may be fascinating with their function easily embraced by everybody. The technology has changed the way we interact, so that Women can connect to digital in the world, which is expanding around us. From commercial to music, touch screen mobile phone is easy to adapt to change lifestyles. This enables us to adapt our equipment in a single base to suit our lives. Now these devices are faster than ever with AT & T and the famous package of 3G network equipment.

By any means, we can say that touch screen technology is not new. The technology has existed for 20 years, but because of the high cost, the device can not be implemented. And it can only detect the one contact point at a time. With the demands of more advanced microprocessor technology as a fluid and functional tool, this technology has come out. The design of the home computer and the whole processor time is expensive. Once only home computers become cheaper production and demand growth and maturity of touch screen technology and equipment. Now it is easy to see touch-screen is fast becoming part of our common lives, mobile devices, from ATM machines, touch-screen phone is the invention device can have more contact changes with “flu”, and our actions. This allows us to design programs and applications based on the feeling output navigation. Now large companies such as Apple, LG, Samsung, Nokia, and Blackberry mobile phones have released a new and improved touch-screen phone. This change required touch screen technology forever!

Once you have used one of the main touch screen mobile phone, it will change your point of view on the recent social cracking. It is so natural with the selection of one of the touch screen devices, just as it is an extension of our own time. It changes you and customizes the look to imitate your style. Keep in touch, look good for doing it, it is clear. The next time you go to buy a phone or upgrade it, make sure looking at the trading of the touch-screen phones. You can connect to the world or power your life with just one touch.

How Mobile Phone Spy Technology Can Help You

individuals don’t have the form of secrecy they use to. Common mail through the post office used to be the norm, but no more. We appear to require instant gratification these days. Evenstill we’re not happy until we recognize everything about those closest to us throughout any part of the day, and we’re working to make that likely.

Now our wish has been granted with recent technology as long as we can access the cell telephone and have the power to do so. A mobile phone software is available that will enlighten you all that you want to understand about any particular individual. What it does is record all conversations, data and text that are sent or taken by the phone after you upload the software.

Most people carry their mobile phone with them wherever they travel and pretty much never put it down. Mobile phones are how lots of of us stay up to date with all that’s going on in the world around us. You can even call numerous people in the middle of the night and they’ll answer their mobile telephone.

Mobile telephone spy technology can be used by a lot of unique people for unique reasons. Without being detected, you can keep your eye on individuals that you feel you requirement to.

put in the uncomplicated and stealth software onto the phone to get started.

No matter what you might have been told, you can’t install the software without access. Still, you can do it without them realizing. Once you decide to place the application on a phone you will receive all the raw and updated data available for you. All info is collected from the telephone so you can scrutinize all calls that were made from the phone as well as those taken.

The Sms sms messaging characteristic is more widely used than ever before and you will have complete access to the talks that goes on there too. With a GPS feature merged into the mobile phone spy application you will be able to continually be acquainted with where the phone and it’s user are.

As a parent, you will appreciate being able to investigate where your kids are at any moment in time and what friends they are sms messaging with. It’s very nearly like having a homing chip installed in your kid if they were ever to be out of reach passed the time they were to be home.

If you are a employer who provides mobile phones to your employees as part of their job duties, you will be able to keep watch over their activities.

And if you doubt your spouse or partner of cheating, you can determine for sure by using Mobile telephone Spy Software.

No longer tolerate yourself to be a victim of discomfort and doubt about what seems to be out of your control. You will continually be able to discover the answers to your most serious questions with mobile phone spy technology.

Technology Pr And Technology A Match Made In Heaven

The relationship between technology and technology PR has always been an interesting one as PR practitioners, most notably those engaged in technology PR, are often first to exploit the development of new technologies to advance their clients goals. Further advances, which undoubtedly are coming, will make the world a smaller place, unite people behind a cause faster and facilitate the sharing of news and knowledge in ways that cannot even be contemplated at this point in time. Who better positioned to capitalize on such developments than technology PR pros

The relationship between Facebook or other such sites such as LinkedIn and technology PR is quite interesting and somewhat symbiotic Facebook and LinkedIn enjoyed their meteoric assents into public consciousness undoubtedly via some shrewd technology PR techniques while technology PR gained a face through the many uses afforded it by the social networking sites.

Technology and technology PR have always been yoked together and are two areas that are fairly young relative to other sectors of the professional business world. Technology, although it has always existed, has witnessed incredible booms and developments in the 21st century creating a lifestyle our parents could never have imagined. Similarly, public relations as an industry is also relatively new, only really becoming an organized practice in the 20th century as it rapidly outgrew its humble origins of flackery and press agentry. Of course, the interrelationship is also important technology obviously has advanced the cause of public relations and Technology PR has certainly played a major role in the adoption of new technologies.

Technology for public relations particularly those engaged in the practice of technology PR is especially important for global firms or public relations firms with clients that are global. It rapidly speeds up the transfer of information and helps people access information more uniformly and accurately. In effect it has globalized and democratized information. Social media technology like Twitter and Facebook are essential for technology PR professionals, as well as online media trades that can be updated a lot more quickly and consistently than print trades: the original outlet for PR press releases, etc. There is no doubt that public relations could not exist without the aid of technology. It might exist, but not as efficiently (anybody remember the world before the advent of super fast fax machines?)

However the practice of technology PR has exerted a strong influence as well. It has helped spread the word about new technologies, fostering their widespread acceptance and benefiting society at large. As we all know technology is a booming field and therefore competitors are growing and present (witness the war among smart phone marketers). Technology PR will help differentiate one product or group from another and establish a relationship with the audience that will yield a competitive advantage through increased brand identity. To accomplish that, technology PR will make use of all the tools traditional media and, of course social media vehicles like Facebook.

Benefits That An Accountant For A Technology Firm Can Bring To Your Business

It is well known that accountants are useful for businesses to help keep their books in order, taxes filed correctly and all other financial housekeeping matters. But hiring an accountant for your technology firm can also bring other benefits that may not be immediately obvious. Here are a few advantages that one can expect from an accountant for a technology firm.

Help Your Business Set and Define its Goals
Whenever a business first gets off the ground, the goals can be simple and immediate: establish a sustainable business. But once the initial bumps start to be evened out, it is time to evaluate what you want your business to achieve. Because the daily demands of running a business can be so consuming, bringing in an outside expert can help with goal setting. An accountant for a technology firm can bring their financial expertise into this discussion so that goals with realistic expectations of success can be set.

Strategies
The next step in achieving identified goals is to lay out strategies for reaching them. Once again, an accountant for a technology firm can help lead the way in crafting these strategies.

Strategic Planning With an Accountant for a Technology Firm
Not all strategic planning works for every company. Technology firms in particular face unique challenges, such as an ever-changing market and new innovations being introduced into the marketplace. Bringing in an accountant for your technology firm to help with strategic planning can insure that your strategic plan is in line with your tax and financial strategies as well.

Budgeting
A key part of successful strategic planning is setting budgets for healthy cash flow and profit planning. When you have a clear budget established for your business, it makes all other planning that much easier and effective.

Use an Accountant for Technology Firms to Identify Resources
An evaluation by an accountant for technology firms can help identify those resources that are still viable and those areas that need beefing up. Perhaps your business is doing a good job making use of current staffing, but could do a better job of outsourcing some aspects of the business. An accountant for technology firms could make these suggestions within your technology firm’s budget parameters.

Execution of Plans

Too often, firms devote the time and resources to identify their goals and strategies for the continuing success and growth of their business, only to fall short when it comes time to execute those plans. Here is where an accountant for technology firms can bring the process into fruition. Having someone accountable for insuring the firm meets its milestones can mean the difference between success and failure.

Even successful technology businesses need to invest in methods for increasing profits and business growth. That is why hiring a business consultant can be such a wise investment. But bringing in a consultant with expertise as an accountant for technology firms can provide both traditional accounting services as well as effective strategic planning, performance measurement and execution support.

Bio-identical Signaling Technology To Anti-aging Doctors

Dr. Luis Martinez introduced Bio-Identical Signaling Technology at the Age Management Medicine Group (AMMG)conference in Hollywood Florida. The AMMG is an evidence-based continuing medical education conference that draws doctors from all over the world. The conference was attended by more than 500 physicians who focus on healthy aging as part of their practice.

In his presentation entitled Bio-Identical Signaling Therapy Its role in Age Management Medicine, Dr. Martinez emphasized that the cycle of oxidative damage and repair is an ongoing and natural process. As long as the bodys oxidative response mechanisms keep up with the oxidative stress damage, a person remains healthy. However, increasing age and a variety of lifestyle and environmental factors can cause repair mechanisms to fall behind, leading to a decline in cellular activity and ultimately compromising health and vitality. In short, oxidative stress damage impedes cellular function and is implicated in virtually all the chronic illnesses.

Dr. Martinez described the approach of assisting oxidative response mechanisms for cellular repair and protection by augmenting the bodys natural signaling capability. A natural signal that triggers oxidative response mechanisms within the cells is known as a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-specific signal. University researchers have previously confirmed that this particular ROS-specific signal can be generated outside the body.

Dr. Martinez also described his clinical application of the technology and Dr. Luis Martinez presents Bio-Identical Signaling Technology to anti-aging doctors. presented a case study of a woman suffering from Alzheimers disease. He concluded that bio-identical signaling has broad clinical applications and could be offered by any physician treating age related illness or providing in anti-aging solutions. The device used by Dr. Martinez in his clinic is the NanoVi Pro developed by Eng3 Corporation in Seattle Washington.

Independent university researchers have studied the signal generated by the NanoVi Pro and verified it is a bio-identical signal. Eng3s technology relies on a proprietary process to generate the ROS-specific bio-identical signal. The NanoVi Pro is registered with the FDA. This printer-sized device is easy to use by physicians, or home users. More information about this approach can be found at www.eng3corp.com or you can see the technology in action by viewing this video Introducing NanoVi Technology.

Led High-power Street Lamp Technology

LED street lamps to large-scale application, the general notion that still needs some time,. but I really think that LED lights technology matured. Welcome to correct me.

To say LED street lamps (which is actually all LED lighting) is not reason for large-scale application are the following three:
1, LED street lamps light efficiency has not yet reached to the level of sodium;
2, the life of LED street lamps;
3, LED street lamps photometric is not ideal.

Talked about LED street lamps, many people will pointed out that LED of display color index LED controller than sodium of display color index high many, and can reduced LED street lamps of as of standard, appeal separate for LED street lamps amendment standard, actually, from macro Shang see sent hope Yu amendment standard is does not reality of, and I think existing of road lighting standard no may also no necessary amendment. to makes LED replaced other light became reality, on only by LED lighting area of people themselves efforts has.

Luminous efficiency problems:
First, sodium of light effect does is high, I see some better of sodium products units power lumens number are in 110 above, and currently do of good of LED also on in 90Lm/W around, also no energy saving. but, if comparison lamps of efficiency, conclusions on does not as has. because general light are is 360 of Omni-directional uniform glow, and LED glow has directional, usually is 180 of within, so difference, Street light is not the same. made of sodium lamp or conventional light Street lamp lamps light efficiency is typically around 60%, LED street lamps can more easily reach 90%. According to the weighted, effective light for the 66Lm/W sodium street lamps and LED Street lamp light can effectively reach 80Lm/W.

Second, since it is a street lamp, is of course the only fall on pavement of light is needed, that will further see the flux on the road, to minimum national standards H=Weff, for example, better utilization coefficient of sodium lamps of 0.3,[url=http://led8989.bmlink.com/]LED controller [/url] if LED utilization coefficient of 0.8, then to the current level of LED luminous efficiency, A 110W of LED street lamps on full can replaced 250W of sodium has, if considered to actual engineering cost, factors, usually in accordance with H=1.2Weff to design words, to 100W of LED street lamps replaced 250W of sodium is at this stage on can implementation of. to reached 60% so of energy saving level has has enough of energy saving effect has. to reached 0.8 of using coefficient, this is see LED street lamps design personnel distribution light of Foundation, actually is also does not difficult.

Life issues:
If was told you, they of LED lamps of life has 100,000 hours or 50,000 hours, and 30,000 hours, you and to hear is not to believe, but remember asked asked how are of, if said is known of, that you heard had even has, if told you is measured of, must then asked about is to how many hours data for Foundation of, because now certainly no anyone for had to million hours for meter of test, because this impossible, future also does not has foolish for so of test, Because it’s not needed. 1000 hours of data will tell you, you don’t count, because a lot of LED tube luminous efficiency is increased in 1000 hours. LED controllers and of course, when you tube as well. Now international passage of life test time is 1000 + 5,000 hours test, yiqian 1000 hours for stability time, Hou 5,000 hours data for calculation life of pursuant to, over 5,000 hours life in accordance with 5,000 hours within of intended-in curve outside push calculation. we actual test of 1+5 thousand hours of light failure for 2.2%, and is linear of, if considered some allowance, we will products standard will for 5,000 hours light failure for 2.5%, so outside push 50% light effect of life will is 100,000 hours, 70% Photosynthetic efficiency of life expectancy of 60,000 hours.

But, regardless of is in accordance with 50% also is 70% calculation life are is does not important of, actually most science of is for many national by used of method is maintained as of does not below standard provides of maintained as of of life for quasi. such as GB provides fast road of maintained average as of for 20Lx, if early loaded street lamps of average as of for 30Lx, is should to 66% light effect calculation life, so calculation of life is is 66,000 hours. LED controller if plus midnight lamp control, Real time on up to 100,000 hours. of course, can we really achieve this time, may have to wait 25 years before you can know.

Clean Room Technology Then And Now

The principle of Clean room design starts from almost 150 years ago when these units were used for bacterial control in hospitals. Today, clean rooms have completed a long way and developed to the modern technology. In earlier day, these clean rooms were designed for fulfilling the requirement of clean environment for industrial manufacturing during 1950s and the same clean rooms are also used for variety of applications in many industries.

A clean room is defined as a place that provides attentively controlled environment that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as airborne microbes, dust, chemical vapors, and aerosol particles. When the air entered in a clean room it is filtered and then continuously circulated through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or ultra-low particulate air (ULPA) filters. These filters are used to remove internally generated contaminants. The persons, who work inside the clean room, wear protective clothing while enter and exit through airlocks, while equipment and furniture inside the clean room is specially designed to produce minimal particles.

Today, more than 30 different industry segments utilize clean rooms including semiconductor and other electronic components, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries.

Modern clean rooms were developed during the Second World War to improve the quality and reliability of instrumentation used in manufacturing guns, tanks and aircraft. During this time, HEPA filters were also developed to contain the dangerous radioactive, microbial or chemical contaminants that resulted from experiments into nuclear fission, as well as research into chemical and biological warfare.

On the other hand, clean rooms for manufacturing and military purposes were being developed; the importance of ventilation for contamination control in hospitals was being realized. The use of ventilation in a medical setting gradually became standard practice during this time.

The concept of laminar flow was introduced during 1950s and 1960s, when NASAs space travel program was initiated. This marked a turning point in clean room technology and from this time, the evolution of clean rooms gained momentum.

In the late 1950s, the Sandia Corporation (which later became Sandia National Laboratories) began investigating the excessive contamination levels found in clean rooms. Researchers found that clean rooms were being operated at the upper practical limits of cleanliness levels and identified a need to develop alternative clean room designs.

In 1961, Professor Sir John Charnley and Hugh Howorth, showed a tremendous improvement in unidirectional airflow by creating a downward flow of air from a much smaller area of the ceiling, directly over the operating table.

Also in 1961, the first standard written for clean rooms, known as Technical Manual TO 00-25-203, was published by the United States Air Force. This standard considered clean room design and airborne particle standards, as well as procedures for entry, clothing and cleaning.

In 1962, Patent No. 3158457 for the laminar flow room was issued. It was known as an ultra clean room.
By 1965, there have been several vertical down flow rooms were used in which the air flow ranged between 15 m (50 ft)/min and 30 m (100 ft)/min. It was during this time that the specification of 0.46 m/s air velocity and the requirement for 20 air changes an hour became the accepted standard.

By the early 1970s the principle of laminar flow had been translated from the laboratory to wide application in production and manufacturing processes.

The 1980s saw continued interest in the development of the clean room. By this stage, clean room technology had also become of particular interest to food manufacturers.

In 1987, a patent was filed for a system of partitioning the clean room to allow zones of particularly high-level cleanliness. This improved the efficiency of individual clean rooms by allowing areas to adopt different degrees of cleanliness according to the location and need.

In 1991, a patent was filed for a helmet system that can be used in a medical clean room in which the user is protected from contaminated air in the environment, while the patient is protected from contaminated air being exhausted from the users helmet. Such a device decreases the possibility of operating room personnel being contaminated with viruses carried by the patients being operated upon.
The pace of clean room technology transformation has accelerated over recent years. Since the year 2000, there have been significant advances in new clean room technology, which have helped to streamline manufacturing and research processes, while also reducing the risk of contamination. Most of the technological developments of the past decade have been directed towards the manufacture of sterile products, particularly aseptically filled products.

In 2003, Eli Lilly pioneered the development of a new system for the prevention and containment of cross contamination during the manufacture of pharmaceutical powders using a specially designed fog cart. This allows the operator to be covered by an exceptionally fine fog of water on exit from a critical area, virtually eliminating the risk of transferring dust traces beyond their proper confines.

The Future of Clean Rooms
Today, clean rooms are used in variety of applications. The presence of these units can be seen in the manufacturing of semiconductor and other electronic components, as well as in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Furthermore clean room technology has more recently been applied to micro- and Nano-system processes, and this looks certain to be an area of growth in coming years. The development of clean room technology is likely to continue to be driven by certain key factors including the increasingly technical use of exotic physical and biological phenomena, the central role of increasingly fine structures, the creation and use of materials of the highest purity, and the increasingly broad-based utilization of biotechnology. Given the scale of these challenges, clean room technology looks set to remain indispensable to production in coming years.